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Code: MA590 | L-T-P-C: 3-1-0-8

Axiomatic definition of probability, probability spaces, probability measures on countable and uncountable spaces, conditional probability, independence; Random variables, distribution functions, probability mass and density functions, functions of random variables, standard univariate discrete and continuous distributions and their properties; Mathematical expectations, moments, moment generating functions, characteristic functions, inequalities; Random vectors, joint, marginal and conditional distributions, conditional expectations, independence, covariance, correlation, standard multivariate distributions, functions of random vectors; Modes of convergence of sequences of random variables, weak and strong laws of large numbers, central limit theorems; Introduction to stochastic processes, definitions and examples.


  1. J. Jacod and P. Protter, Probability Essentials, Springer, 2004.
  2. V. K. Rohatgi and A. K. Md. E. Saleh, An Introduction to Probability and Statistics, 2nd Edn., Wiley, 2001.


  1. P. G. Hoel, S. C. Port and C. J. Stone, Introduction to Probability Theory, Universal Book Stall, 2000.
  2. G. R. Grimmett and D. R. Stirzaker, Probability and Random Processes, 3rd Edn., Oxford University Press, 2001.
  3. S. Ross, A First Course in Probability, 6th Edn., Pearson, 2002.
  4. W. Feller, An Introduction to Probability Theory and its Applications, Vol. 1, 3rd Edn., Wiley, 1968.
  5. J. Rosenthal, A First Look at Rigorous Probability Theory, 2nd Edn., World Scientific, 2006.