The Shillong Plateau originated due to the movement in the faults surrounding it; however which fault caused the uplift of the plateau is debatable. Several earthquakes have occurred in the plateau due to these surrounding faults. One such earthquake is the Assam earthquake of 1897 (Mw=8.1). Also, there are evidences that similar earthquakes had occurred prior to 1897. In the light of the partial evidences, the return period of such great earthquakes remains uncertain. Further, several research studies had also highlighted the damages evidenced in the Shillong Plateau during many of the past earthquakes. However the location and mechanism of such earthquakes were observed in a variety of ways by different researchers. This paper presents a detailed review on the different opinions about the origin of the Shillong Plateau as well as the location and orientation of the faults surrounding it. Further, a detailed discussion on the devastations caused by past earthquakes in terms of geological changes, structural damages and loss of life in each of these earthquakes is done. This study highlights the need for detailed regional studies to be conducted in the Shillong Plateau filtering out the different opinions by various researchers such that ongoing seismicity can be considered for future studies.