Philosophy of science: objectives, nature and scope, philosophy as a human science and science as natural philosophy.- Nature of scientific explanation: causal laws of Descartes and Liebniz; the pragmatics of explanation: the unification model of explanation; Case studies: Galileo-s laws describing the motion of freely falling bodies and projectiles and derivation of Newton-s laws and Kepler-s laws; Induction:falsifiability, justification and complexity of scientific inferences; ambiguities of induction and Goodman-s new riddle of induction; Case study: Bayles- theorem;Metaphysics of scientific entities: realism about scientific entities; Space, time, creation and evolution: Indian and western perspectives; Case studies: axiomatism and computational positivism in mathematics, Godel-s theorem; Confirmation of scientific theory: objective evidence, Aristotle-s worldview and later developments; problem of under determination of theory by evidence; Case studies: Heisenberg-s indeterminacy and quantum collapse; Case study :causation and belief revision:detennination and self-organization, Ramsey test and counterfactual worlds. Geuetic prediction and ethical issues; Challenges to the objectivity of science: the challenge from Kuhnian relativism, the challenge from the sociology of scientific knowledge and social constructivism, the challenge from feminist epistemology and feminist philosophy of science. Case study.
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