The design of an accurate control scheme for a lower limb exoskeleton system has few challenges due to the uncertain dynamics and the unintended subject’s reflexes during gait rehabilitation. In this work, a robust linear quadratic regulator- (LQR-) based neural-fuzzy (NF) control scheme is proposed to address the effect of payload uncertainties and external disturbances during passive-assist gait training. Initially, the Euler-Lagrange principle-based nonlinear dynamic relations are established for the coupled system. The input-output feedback linearization approach is used to transform the nonlinear relations into a linearized state-space form. The architecture of the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and used membership function are briefly explained. While varying mass parameters up to 20%, three robust neural-fuzzy datasets are formulated offline with the joint error vector and LQR control input. Thereafter, to deal with external interferences, an error dynamics with a disturbance estimator is presented using an online adaptation of the firing strength matrix. The Lyapunov theory is carried out to ensure the asymptotic stability of the coupled human-exoskeleton system in view of the proposed controller. The gait tracking results for the proposed control scheme (RLQR-NF) are presented and compared with the exponential reaching law-based sliding mode (ERL-SM) controller. Furthermore, to investigate the robustness of the proposed control over LQR control, a comparative performance analysis is presented for two cases of parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. The first case considers the 20% raise in mass values with a trigonometric form of disturbances, and the second case includes the effect of the 30% increment in mass values with a random form of disturbances. The simulation runs have shown the promising gait tracking aspects of the designed controller for passive-assist gait training.