Thermodynamic principles of phase transformations: Binary solutions; equilibrium of heterogeneous systems; Principles of solidification: Nucleation and growth of pure metals and alloys, eutectic solidification; Solidification of ingots and castings: formation of plane front, columnar, equiaxed and dentritic structures; Various solidification techniques viz: sand casting, metal mold casting, continuous casting, zone melting, Rapid solidification, etc,. Influence of process variables on the properties of metallic materials.
 D.S. Porter & K.E. Esterling, Phase transformation in metals and alloys, Chapman & Hall, 1981.
 W. Kurtz and D.J. Fischer, Principles of Solidification, edition - 3, Trans Tech Publications, 1992
 John Campbell, Castings, Butterworth Heinemann, edition -1, 1998.
 Casting , ASM hand book, Vol-15, 1997.