Ethnic conflict: concepts and causes; Approaches exploring the causes, escalation and destructive consequences of violent conflicts and political instability of states in South and Southeast Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Balkans, and Eastern Europe; Implications of conflicts: changing power relations between different ethnic groups, intra and inter state politics; Strategies of mobilization; Management of conflict; Case studies: historical backgrounds and recent developments.
1. Stanley Tambiah, Leveling Crowds: Ethnonationalist Conflicts and Collective Violence in South Asia,University of California Press, 1997.
2. Donald, Horowitz, Ethnic Groups in Conflict, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1985.
1. Anthony D. Smith, Theories of Nationalism. New York: Harper and Row, 1971.
2. Jacques Bertrand, Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Indonesia, Cambridge, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2004.