Topics in matrix theory: Elementary canonical forms: digitalisation, triangulation, primary and secondary decompositions, Jordan canonical forms and applications. Introduction to optimization theory: The optimization problem and illustrative examples; necessary and sufficient conditions for optima; convex sets, convex functions, optima of convex functions; constrained minimization- linear and non-linear constraints, equality and inequality constraints, optimality conditions, Karush Kuhn Tucker optimality conditions; unconstrained optimization- steepest descent, Newton and quasi Newton methods, conjugate direction methods. Calculus of variation- The method of variations in problems with fixed boundaries, Variation of a functional, Euler’s equation, functionals involving derivatives of higher order, optimal control as a problem of variational calculus.
1. K. Hoffman and R. Kunz, Linear Algebra, Prentice Hall India, 2001.
2. J.Luenberger D.G. Introduction to Linear and Nonlinear Programming, 2/e, Addison Wesley, 1984.
3. J. L. Troutman, Variational Calculus and Optimal Control: Optimization with Elementary Convexity, 2/e, Springer Verlag, 1996.
Advanced Control Systems
EC - 351
Frequency response design: Design of lag, lead, lag-lead and PID controllers, the Nyquist criterion, analysis and design, relative stability and the Bode diagram, closed-loop response, sensitivity, time delays; Root locus design: construction of root loci, phase-lead and phase-lag design, PID controller design; Modern design: controllability and observability, state feedback with integral control, reduced order observer; Optimal control design: Solution-time criterion, Control-area criterion, Performance indices, Zero steady state step error systems; Modern control performance index: Quadratic performance index, Ricatti equation; Digital controllers: Use of z-transform for closed loop transient response, stability analysis using bilinear transform and Jury method, deadbeat control, Digital control design using state feedback; On-line identification and control: On-line estimation of model and controller parameters.
1. G. F. Franklin, J. D. Powel and A. E. Emami-Naeini: Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, Prentice Hall Inc. 2002.
2. M. Gopal: Control Systems, 3/e, Tata McGraw Hill, 2008.
3. M. Gopal: Digital Control and State Variable Methods, Tata McGraw Hill, 2003.
4. K. J. Astrom and T. Hagglund: Advanced PID Control, ISA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, 2005.
Electrical Power Systems
EC - 380
Generation of electrical energy: Basic structure of power system; demand of electrical system – base load, peak load; controlling power balance between generator and load, advantages of interconnected system; Thermal power plant – general layout, turbines, alternators, excitation system, governing system, efficiency; Hydel power plant – typical layout, turbines, alternators; Nuclear power plant – principle of energy conversion, types of nuclear reactors; brief overview of renewable energy sources. Transmission of electrical energy: Evaluation of Transmission line parameters- types of conductors, representation of transmission line, inductance calculation of single/three phase lines, concept of GMD and GMR, transposition of lines, bundled conductors, skin effect, proximity effect, capacitance calculation of single/three phase lines, effect of earth on calculation of capacitance, line resistance, line conductance; Analysis of transmission lines – representation, short/medium/long transmission lines, nominal T/π network, ABCD parameters, surge impedance, Ferranti effect, power flow through a transmission line, reactive power compensation of transmission line; corona loss; Insulators for overhead transmission lines – types of insulators, string efficiency, methods to improve string efficiency; Insulated cables – insulating material, grading of cables, capacitance of single/three core cable, dielectric loss; methods of grounding; Transient analysis – travelling waves, reflection and refraction, lattice diagram; mechanical design of transmission line. Distribution of Electrical Energy: D.C and A.C. distribution, radial and ring main distribution, medium voltage distribution network, low voltage distribution network, single line diagram, substation layout, substation equipments.
1. L. M. Faulkenberry and Walter Coffer, Electrical Power Distribution and Transmission, 2/e, Pearson Education Inc., 2007.
2. S. N. Singh: Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Prentice-Hall, 2007.
1. J. D. Glover, M. S. Sarma and T. J. Overbye, Power System Analysis and Design, 4/e, Thomson Learning Inc., 2007.
2. James Green and R. Wolson, Control and Automation of Electric Power Distribution System, Taylor and Francis, 2006.
3. B. Sorensen, Renewable Energy, Academic Press, 2/e, 2000.
4. Tarun Gonen, Electric Power Distribution System, McGraw-Hill, 1986.
5. W. D. Stevenson, Elements of Power System Analysis, McGraw-Hill, 4/e, 1982.
6. D. P. Kothari and I. J. Nagrath, Modern Power System Analysis, McGraw-Hill, 2006.
Electrical Power System Operation and Controls
EC - 480
Power system analysis: modeling of power system components - integrated operation of power systems, load flow studies, economic load dispatch, load frequency control, automatic generation control (AGC), power system stability; Power system protection: Symmetrical components, fault analysis, switchgear, fuses, circuit breakers and relays. Economics of power supply systems: Economic choice of conductor size and voltage level, maximum demand and diversity factor, tariffs, power factor correction; Introduction to high voltage DC transmission (HVDC), flexible AC transmission system (FACTS), supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA).
1. D. P. Kothari and I. J. Nagrath, Modern Power System Analysis, McGraw-Hill, 2006.
2. P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control, McGraw-Hill, 1995.
1. Narain G. Hingorani and Laszlo Gyugyi, Understanding FACTS, Wiley-IEEE Press, 1999.
2. Jos Arrillaga, High voltage direct current transmission, IEE Power Engineering Series, 2/e, 1998.
3. A. J. Wood and B. F. Wollenberg, Power Generation Operation and Control, John Wiley and Sons, 2/e, 1996.
4. A. Wright and C. Christopoulos, Electrical Power system protection, Chapman & Hall, 1993.
Power Electronics and Drives
EC - 481
Power Semiconductor Devices: Diode, BJT, MOSFET, SCR, Triac, GTO, IGBT, MCT and their V-I characteristics, ratings, driver circuits, protection and cooling; AC-DC Converters (Rectifiers): Diode rectifier, thyristor based rectifier, effect of source inductance, single/three phase rectifiers, semi/full rectifiers, power factor, harmonics; DC-AC Converters (Inverters): Concept of switched mode inverters, PWM switching, voltage and frequency control of single/ three phase inverters, harmonics reduction, other switching schemes - square wave pulse switching, programmed harmonic elimination switching, current regulated modulation switching - tolerance band control, fixed frequency control; voltage source inverter (VSI), current source inverter (CSI); DC-DC Converters (Chopper): Principle; buck, boost and buck-boost converters; AC Voltage Controllers: Principle of ON-OFF control and phase control, single/three phase controllers, PWM AC voltage controller, cycloconverters; Electric drives: introduction and classification. DC motor drives: speed-torque characteristics of shunt, series, PMDC motors; dynamic models; speed and position control methods; AC motor drives: d-q model of induction motor; constant flux speed control structure; vector control model; vector control structure.
1. N. Mohan: Power Electronics- Converters, Applications and Design, 3/e, John Wiley & Sons, 2003.
2. G. K. Dubey, Fundamentals of Electrical Drives, Narosa Publishing House, 2003.
1. Muhammad Rashid, Power Electronics- Circuits, Devices and Applications, 3/e, Prentice Hall, 2004.
2. B. K. Bose, Modern Power Electronics and AC Drives, Pearson Education, 2003.
3. Andrzej M. Trzynadlowski, Introduction to Modern Power Electronics, John Wiley & Sons, 1998.
4. Muhammad Rashid, Power Electronics Handbook, Academic Press-Elsevier, 2001.
Advanced Electrical Engineering Laboratory
EC - 482
Reactive power compensation, synchronization of alternators, load angle characteristics of transmission line, ABCD parameters of transmission lines, fault analysis based on over-current and differential relays, design of simple inverters and voltage controllers, speed control of electric drives.
1. C. S. Indulkar, Laboratory Experiments in Electrical Power Engineering, Khanna Publishers, 2003.
2. G. K. Dubey, Fundamentals of Electrical Drives, Narosa Publishing House, 2003.
3. S. N. Singh: Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Prentice-Hall, 2007.
4. R. K. Rajput, Electrical Machines, Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd, 3/e, 2003.
5. P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control, McGraw-Hill, 1995.