Circuit Analysis Techniques: Circuit elements, Simple RL and RC Circuits, Ohm’s law, Kirchoff’s laws, Nodal Analysis, Mesh Analysis, Linearity and Superposition, Source Transformations, Thevnin’s and Norton’s Theorems, Sinusoidal Forcing Function, Complex Forcing Function, Phasor Relationship for R, L and C, Impedance and Admittance, Phasor Diagrams, Response as a function of ω. Diodes and Transistors: Semiconductor Diode, Zener Diodes, Rectifier Circuits, Wave Shaping Circuits, Bipolar Junction Transistors, Field-Effect Transistors, Transistor Biasing, Transistor Small Signal Analysis, Transistor Amplifiers. Operational Amplifiers: Op-amp Equivalent Circuit, Practical Op-amp Circuits, DC Offset, Constant Gain Multiplier, Voltage Summing, Voltage Buffer, Controlled Sources, Instrumentation Circuits, Active Filters and Oscillators. Logic Gates and Combinational Circuits: Number Systems and Codes, Logic Gates, Boolean Theorems, DeMogan’s Theorems, Sum-of Product Form, Algebraic Simplification, Karnaugh Map Method, Parity Generator and Checker, Inhibit Circuits. Sequential Circuits and Arithmetic Circuits: NAND and NOR gate Latches, S-C Flip-Flop, J-K Flip-Flop, D Flip-Flop, Data Storage, Serial Data Transfer, Frequency Division and Counting, Binary Addition, 2’s Complement System, Full Adder, BCD Adder. Transformers and AC Machines: Ideal Transformer, Circuit Model of Transformer, Determination of Parameters of Circuit Model of Transformer, Voltage Regulation, Efficiency, Three Phase Induction Motor, Three Phase Synchronous Generator, Induced Voltage, Electromagnetic Torque, Equivalent Circuit of Three Phase Induction Motor, Torque Speed Characteristic. Fractional-kW Motors and DC Machines: Single Phase Induction Motors, Characteristics and Typical Applications, Stepper Motors, Construction Features, Methods of Operations, DC Generator and DC Motor Analysis, Methods of Excitation, Speed Torque Characteristics and Speed Control of DC Machines. Electrical Engineering Systems: Transmission and Distribution Power Systems, Open-loop and Closed-loop Control Systems, Satellite Control System, Communication System, Amplitude Modulation and Demodulation, Speech Analysis and Synthesis Systems.
1. W.H. Hayt and J.E. Kemmerly: Engineering Circuit Analysis; McGraw-Hill, 1993.
2. R.J. Smith and R.C. Dorf: Circuits, Devices and Systems; John Wiley & Sons, 1992.
3. R.L. Boylestad and L. Nasheisky: Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory; PHI, 6e, 2001.
4. R.J. Tocci: Digital Systems; PHI, 6e, 2001.
5. V. Del Toro: Electrical Engineering Fundamentals; PHI, 1994.
Basic Eelectronics Laboratory
EC - 102
Experiments using diodes and bipolar junction transistor (BJT): design and analysis of half -wave and full-wave rectifiers, clipping circuits and Zener regulators, BJT characteristics and BJT amplifiers; experiments using operational amplifiers (op-amps): summing amplifier, comparator, precision rectifier, astable and monostable multivibrators and oscillators; experiments using logic gates: combinational circuits such as staircase switch, majority detector, equality detector, multiplexer and demultiplexer; experiments using flip-flops: sequential circuits such as non-overlapping pulse generator, ripple counter, synchronous counter, pulse counter and numerical display.
1. A. P. Malvino, Electronic Principles. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill, 1993.
2. R. A. Gayakwad, Op-Amps and Linear Integrated Circuits. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India, 2002.
3. R.J. Tocci: Digital Systems; PHI, 6e, 2001.
Semiconductor Devices and Circuits
EC - 200
Energy bands; semiconductors; charge carriers: electrons and holes, effective mass, doping. Carrier concentration: Fermi level, temperature dependence of carrier concentration. Drift and diffusion of carriers: excess carriers; recombination and life time, Five equations of carrier transport. p-n Junction: depletion region, forward and reverse-bias, depletion and diffusion capacitances, switching characteristics; breakdown mechanisms; SPICE model. BJT: carrier distribution; current gain, transit time, secondary effects; SPICE model. Metal-semiconductor junctions: rectifying and ohmic contacts. MOSFET: MOS capacitor; Cv-Iv characteristics; threshold voltage; SPICE model. Single stage amplifiers: CE-CB-CC and CG-CD-CS modes of operation, large signal transfer characteristics of BJT and MOSFET, Different types of biasing for BJT and MOSFET, Small signal parameters, Body effect in MOSFET, Parasitic elements, frequency response of CE and CS amplifiers. Analog ICs: DAC, ADC, VCO, PLL and 555-timer.
1. R. F. Pierret, Semiconductor Device Fundamentals, PHI, 2006
2. P. R. Gray, Paul Hurst, S.H. Lewis and R. G. Meyer, Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuit, John Wiley, 2001.
1. S. Sedra and K. C. Smith, Microelectronic Circuits, Oxford University Press, 1997.
2. M. S. Tyagi, Introduction to Semiconductor Materials and Devices, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1991.
3. Michael Shur, Introduction to Electronic Devices, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2000
4. R. T. Howe and C. G. Sodini, Microelectronics: An Integrated Approach, Prentice-Hall Inc. 1997.
5. Ben G. Streetman, Solid State Electronic Devices, PHI, 5/e, 2001
6. J. Singh, Semiconductor Devices - Basic Principles; John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2001
Digital Circuits and Microprocessors
EC - 201
Digital logic families: TTL, MOS, interfacing between logic families; Combinational circuits: multiplexer/ demultiplexer, encoder/ decoder, adder/ subtractor, comparator and parity generators; Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops (RS, JK, D, T, and Master Slave); Registers; Counters: ripple, ring, and shift register counters; Design and analysis of synchronous sequential finite state machine; Programmable logic devices; Introduction to HDL. Microprocessors: 8085 addressing modes, memory interfacing, interrupts, instructions, timing diagram; Introduction to 8086; Peripheral chips: I/Os, timer, interrupt controller, USART, DMA.
1. C. H. Roth Jr., “Fundamentals of Logic Design”, 4/e, Jaico Publishers, 2002.
2. R. K. Gaonkar, “Microprocessor Architecture, Programming and Applications with the 8085”, Penram International Publishing (India), 2000.
1. M. D. Ercegovac, T. Lang, and J.H. Moreno, “Introduction to Digital Systems”, John Wiley, 2000.
2. J. F. Wakerly, “Digital Design – principles and practices”, 4/e, Pearson Education; 2006.
3. Z. Kohavi, “Switching and Finite Automata Theory”, 2/e, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2008.
4. V. P. Nelson, H. T. Nagle, B. D. Carroll & J. D. Irwin, “Digital Logic Circuit Analysis and Design”, Prentice-Hall, 1995.
5. D. V. Hall, “Microprocessors and Interfacing: programming and hardware”, TMH, 1995.
Digital Circuits Laboratory
EC - 202
Combinational Logic design using decoders and multiplexers; design of arithmetic circuits using adder ICs; Flip flop circuit (RS latch, JK & master slave) using basic gates; Asynchronous Counters, Johnson & Ring counters; Synchronous counters; Sequential Circuit designs (sequence detector circuit), DAC circuit; Assembly language programming of 8085: a) sorting and code conversion, b) matrix multiplication; 8085 interfacing: a) parallel port interface (square wave generation), b) counter and timer interface (polling and using interrupts); ADC/DAC interfacing with 8085.
1.Niklaus Wirth, Digital Circuit Design: An Introductory Textbook, Sringer, 1995.
2. D. P Leach, A. P. Malvino and G. Saha, Digital Principles and Applications, 2/e, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2006
3. R. S. Gaonkar, “Microprocessor Architecture, Programming and Applications with the 8085”, Penram International Publishing (India), 2000.
4. TTL IC Data Sheets (www.datasheetarchive.com/).
Analog Integrated Circuits
EC - 203
Frequency response of amplifiers: high frequency device models, frequency response, GBW, methods of short circuit and open circuit time constants, dominant pole approximation; Feedback amplifiers: basic feedback topologies and their properties, analysis of practical feedback amplifiers, stability; Power amplifiers: class A, B, AB, C, D, E stages, output stages, short circuit protection, power transistors and thermal design considerations; Differential amplifiers: DC and small signal analysis, CMRR, current mirrors, active load and cascode configurations, frequency response; case study: 741 op-amp – DC and small signal analysis, frequency response, frequency compensation, GBW, phase margin, slew rate, offsets; CMOS realizations: current source, sink and mirrors, differential amplifiers, multistage amplifiers; Signal generation and waveform shaping: sinusoidal oscillators- RC, LC, and crystal oscillators, Schmitt trigger; Analog subsystems: analog switches, voltage comparator, voltage regulator, switching regulator, bandgap reference voltage source, analog multiplier, filter approximations: Butterworth, Chebyshev and elliptic, first order and second order passive/active filter realizations.
1. S. Smith, "Microelectronics Circuits”, 5/e, Oxford, 2005.
2. P. Gray, P. Hurst, S. Lewis, and R. Meyer, "Analysis & Design of Analog Integrated Circuits," 4/e, Wiley, 2001.
1. B. Razavi, Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits, McGraw Hill 2001.
2. D. Johns, K. Martin, "Analog Integrated Circuit Design," Wiley, 1997.
3. R. A. Gayakwad, Op-Amps and Linear Integrated Circuit, Prentice Hall of India, 2004.
4. B. Razavi, RF Microelectronics, Prentice-Hall, 1998.
5. P. E. Allen and D. R. Holberg, CMOS Analog Circuit Design, 2/e, Oxford University Press, 1997.
Analog Circuits Laboratory
EC - 204
Experiments using BJTs, FETs, op-amps and other integrated circuits: Multistage amplifiers, automatic gain controlled amplifiers, programmable gain amplifiers; frequency response of amplifiers; voltage regulator with short circuit protection; phase locked loop; waveform generators; filters.
1. A. P. Malvino, Electronic Principles, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2007.
2. R. A. Gayakwad, Op-amps and Linear Integrated Circuits, Prentice Hall India, 2004.
3. P. Horowitz and W. Hill, The Art of Electronics, Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Signals, Systems and Networks
EC - 220
Signals: classification of signals; signal operations: scaling, shifting and inversion; signal properties: symmetry, periodicity and absolute integrability; elementary signals. Systems: classification of systems; system properties: linearity, time/shift-invariance, causality, stability; continuous-time linear time invariant (LTI) and discrete-time linear shift invariant (LSI) systems: impulse response and step response; response to an arbitrary input: convolution; system representation using differential and difference equations; Eigen functions of LTI/ LSI systems, frequency response and its relation to the impulse response. Signal representation: signal space and orthogonal bases; Fourier series representation of continuous-time and discrete-time signals; continuous-time Fourier transform and its properties; Parseval's relation, time-bandwidth product; discrete-time Fourier transform and its properties; relations among various Fourier representations. Sampling: sampling theorem; aliasing; signal reconstruction: ideal interpolator, zero-order hold, first-order hold; discrete Fourier transform and its properties. Laplace transform and Z-transform: definition, region of convergence, properties; transform-domain analysis of LTI/LSI systems, system function: poles and zeros; stability. Review of network theorems: superposition, Thevenin’s, Norton’s, reciprocity, maximum power transfer, Millman’s and compensation theorems; Network topology: definition of basic terms, incidence matrix, tie-sets, cut-sets; Two port networks: characterization in terms of impedance, admittance, transmission, hybrid parameters and their relationships, interconnection of two port networks; Symmetrical two port network: T and π equivalents, image impedance, characteristic impedance and propagation constant.
1. M. J. Roberts, "Fundamentals of Signals and Systems", Tata McGraw Hill, 2007.
2. M. E. Van Valkenburg, “Network Analysis”, 3/e, Prentice Hall of India, 2003.
1. A.V. Oppenheim, A.S. Willsky and H.S. Nawab, "Signals and Systems", Prentice Hall of India, 2006.
2. B. P. Lathi,"Signal Processing and Linear Systems", Oxford University Press, 1998.
3. R.F. Ziemer, W.H. Tranter and D.R. Fannin, "Signals and Systems - Continuous and Discrete", 4/e, Prentice Hall, 1998.
4. Simon Haykin, Barry van Veen, "Signals and Systems", John Wiley and Sons, 1998.
5. C. A. Desoer and E. S. Kuh, “Basic Circuit Theory”, McGraw-Hill, 1969.
6. F. F. Kuo, “Netwok Analysis and Synthesis”, 2/e, Weily India, 2007.
7. K. S. Suresh Kumar, “Electric Circuits and Networks”, Pearson Education, 2009.
Probability and Random Processes
EC - 221
Introduction to probability: mathematical background - sets, set operations, sigma and Borel fields; classical, relative-frequency and axiomatic definitions of probability; conditional probability, independence, total probability, Bayes’ rule; repeated trials; random variables: cumulative distribution function, continuous, discrete and mixed random variables, probability mass function, probability density functions; functions of a random variable; expectation - mean, variance and moments; characteristic and moment-generating functions; Chebyshev, Markov and Chernoff bounds; special random variables-Bernoulli, binomial, Poisson, uniform, Gaussian and Rayleigh; joint distribution and density functions; Bayes’ rule for continuous and mixed random variables; joint moments, conditional expectation; covariance and correlation- independent, uncorrelated and orthogonal random variables; function of two random variables; sum of two independent random variables; random vector- mean vector and covariance matrix, multivariate Gaussian distribution; sequence of random variables: almost sure and mean-square convergences, convergences in probability and in distribution, laws of large numbers, central limit theorem; elements of estimation theory- linear minimum mean-square error and orthogonality principle; random process: discrete and continuous time processes; probabilistic structure of a random process; mean, autocorrelation and autocovariance functions; stationarity- strict-sense stationary and wide-sense stationary (WSS) processes: autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions; time averages and ergodicity; spectral representation of a real WSS process-power spectral density, cross-power spectral density, linear time-invariant systems with WSS process as an input- time and frequency domain analyses; spectral factorization theorem; examples of random processes: white noise, Gaussian, Poisson and Markov processes.
1. A. Papoulis and S.U. Pillai, Probability Random Variables and Stochastic Processes, 4/e, McGraw-Hill, 2002.
2. A. Leon Garcia, Probability and Random Processes for Electrical Engineering, 2/e, Addison-Wesley, 1993.
1. P.Z. Peebles, Probability, Random Variables and Random Signal Principles, 4/e, Mc-Graw Hill, 2000.
2. H. Stark and J.W. Woods, Probability and Random Processes with Applications to Signal Processing, Prentice Hall, 2002.
3. K. L. Chung and F. AitSahlia, Elementary Probability Theory with Stochastic Processes and an Introduction to Mathematical Finance, 4/e, Springer-Verlag, 2003.
Principles of Communication
EC - 230
Basic blocks in a communication system: transmitter, channel and receiver; baseband and passband signals and their representations; concept of modulation and demodulation. Continuous wave (CW) modulation: amplitude modulation (AM) - double sideband (DSB), double sideband suppressed carrier (DSBSC), single sideband suppressed carrier (SSBSC) and vestigial sideband (VSB) modulation; angle modulation - phase modulation (PM) & frequency modulation (FM); narrow and wideband FM. Pulse Modulation: sampling process; pulse amplitude modulation (PAM); pulse width modulation (PWM); pulse position modulation (PPM) ; pulse code modulation (PCM); line coding; differential pulse code modulation; delta modulation; adaptive delta modulation. Noise in CW and pulse modulation systems: Receiver model; signal to noise ratio (SNR); noise figure; noise temperature; noise in DSB-SC, SSB, AM & FM receivers; pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, noise consideration in PAM and PCM systems. Basic digital modulation schemes: Phase shift keying (PSK), amplitude shift keying (ASK), frequency shift keying (FSK) and Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM); coherent demodulation and detection; probability of error in PSK, ASK, FSK & QAM schemes. Multiplexing schemes: frequency division multiplexing; time division multiplexing.
1. J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, Communication system engineering, 2/e, Pearson Education Asia, 2002.
2. R. E. Ziemer, W. H. Tranter, Principles of Communications: Systems, Modulation, and Noise, 5/e, John Wiley & Sons, 2001.
1. Simon Haykin, Communication Systems, 4/e, John Wiley & Sons, 2001.
2. K. Sam Shanmugam, Digital and Analog Communication Systems, John Wiley and Sons, 1979.
3. A. B. Carlson, Communication Systems,3/e, McGraw Hill, 1986.
4. B. P. Lathi, Modern Analog and Digital Communication systems, 3/e, Oxford University Press, 1998.
5. H. Taub and D. L. Schilling, Principles of Communication Systems, 2/e, McGraw Hill, 1986.
EC - 280
Magnetic circuits and transformer including 3-phase transformers; modeling of D.C. machines; phasor diagram of cylindrical rotor and salient pole machines- electromagnetic and reluctance torque, response under short circuit conditions; modeling of induction machines- derivation of equivalent circuits, dynamics under load change, speed reversal and braking, unbalanced and asymmetrical operation; single phase induction motor and applications in domestic appliances; modeling of synchronous machines – equivalent circuit, d-q transformations, short circuit studies in synchronous machines; variable reluctance, permanent magnet, stepper motors and their applications.
1. Stephen Chapman, Electric Machinery Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, 4/e, 2003.
2. R. K. Rajput, Electrical Machines, 3/e, Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd., 2003.
1. I. L. Kosow, Electrical Machinery and Transformers, 2/e, Prentice- Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., 2003.
2. B. S. Guru and H. R. Hiziroglu, Electrical Machinery and Transformers, 3/e, Oxford University Press, 2003.
Electrical Machines Laboratory
EC - 281
Open circuit and short circuit tests of single phase transformer, three phase transformer connections, open circuit test and load characteristics of DC generator, speed control and output characteristics of DC motor, no load, blocked rotor and load tests on induction motor, open circuit and short circuit tests of an alternator.
1. Stephen Chapman, Electric Machinery Fundamentals, 4/e, McGraw-Hill, 2003.
2. R. K. Rajput, Electrical Machines, 3/e, Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd., 2003.
EC - 304
A student has to do an electronic hardware mini-project in broad areas like communication, electronic systems design, control and instrumentation, computer, power systems and signal processing. The project involves laying down the specifications, design, prototyping and testing. The project must have major hardware modules involving active discrete components and integrated circuits.
1. P. Horowitz and W. Hill, Art of Electronics, Cambridge University Press, 2nd Edition, 1989.
2. M. M. Mano, Digital Design, Pearson Education, 2002.
3. The ARRL Handbook for Radio Communications- American Radio Relay League, 2008.
4. C. F. Coombs, Electronic Instruments Handbook. McGraw-Hill, 2000.
5. T. Williams, The Circuit Designer’s Companion, Newnes, 2005.
6. R. Pease, Troubleshootting Analog Circuits, Newnes, 1991.
Introduction to VLSI Design
EC - 310
Issues and Challenges in Digital IC Design: general overview of design hierarchy, layers of abstraction, integration density and Moore’s law, VLSI design styles; MOSFET fabrication: basic steps of fabrication, CMOS p-well and n-well processes, layout design rules, Bi-CMOS fabrication process; Latch-up immune designs; CMOS Inverter: MOS Device Model with Sub-micron Effects, VTC Parameters (DC Characteristics), CMOS Propagation Delay, Parasitic Capacitance Estimation, Layout of an Inverter, Switching, Short-Circuit and Leakage Components of Energy and Power; Interconnects: Resistance, Capacitance Estimation, delays, Buffer Chains, Low Swing Drivers, Power Distribution, and Performance Optimization of Digital Circuits by Logical Effort Sizing; Combinational Logic Design: Static CMOS Construction, Ratioed Logic, Pass Transistor, Transmission Gate Logic, DCVSL, Dynamic Logic Design Considerations, noise considerations in dynamic design Power Dissipation in CMOS Logic, Domino and NORA designs; Sequential Circuits Design: Classification, Parameters, Static Latches and Register, Race Condition, Dynamic Latches and Registers, Two Phase vs. Single Phase clock designs, Pulse Based Registers; Design of arithmetic building blocks like adders (static, dynamic, Manchester carry-chain, look-ahead, linear and square-root carry-select, carry bypass and pipelined adders) and multipliers (serial - parallel, Booth’s and systolic array multipliers); Semiconductor memories: non-volatile and volatile memory devices, flash memories, SRAM Cell Design, Differential Sense Amplifiers, DRAM Design, Single Ended Sense Amplifier; Testing in VLSI: Defects, Fault Models, Path Sensitization, Scan, Built-in-self Test (BIST), IDDQ.
1. J.M. Rabaey, A. Chandrakasan and B. Nikolic, Digital Integrated Circuits- A Design Perspective, 2/e, Prentice Hall of India, 2003.
2. N. Weste and D. Harris, CMOS VLSI Design: A Circuits and Systems Perspective, 3/e, Pearson Education India, 2007.
1. D. A. Hodges, H. G. Jackson, R. Saleh, Analysis and Design of Digital Integrated Circuits in Deep submicron Technology, 3/e, McGraw Hill, 2004.
2. Kang and Leblevici, CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits Analysis and Design, 3/e, McGraw Hill, 2003.
3. J. P. Uyemura, Introduction to VLSI Circuits and Systems, John Wiley & Sons (Asia), 2002.
4. W. Wolf, Modern VLSI Design - System on Chip design, 3/e, Pearson Education, 2004.
EC - 311
Model Parameter extraction for a diode and MOSFET; NMOS and PMOS characteristics; Inverter characteristics; Characterization of CMOS Ring Oscillator; Layout of discrete components; Basic gates using different design styles; Design of a 1-bit Shift Register, 4-bit sign magnitude adder, 4-bit Multiplier cells; Basic memory cells; FPGA implementation and testing; Differential amplifier design and characteristics; Current and voltage references, comparator.
1. Muhammad H. Rashid, Introduction to PSpice Using OrCAD for Circuits and Electronics, 3/e, PHI, 2006.
2. Charles H Roth Jr., Digital systems design using VHDL, 8/e, Thomson Learning Inc, 2006.
3. Charles H Roth Jr., Fundamentals of Logic Design, 5/e, Thomson Learning Inc, 2007.
4. J.M. Rabaey, A. Chandrakasan and B. Nikolic, Digital Integrated Circuits- A Design Perspective, 2/e, PHI, 2003.
5. P. E. Allen and D. R. Holberg, CMOS Analog Circuit Design, 2/e, Oxford University Press, 1997.
Digital Signal Processing
EC - 320
Review of discrete time signals, systems and transforms: Discrete time signals, systems and their classification, analysis of discrete time LTI systems: impulse response, difference equation, frequency response, transfer function, DTFT, DTFS and Z-transform. Frequency selective filters: Ideal filter characteristics, lowpass, highpass, bandpass and bandstop filters, Paley-Wiener criterion, digital resonators, notch filters, comb filters, all-pass filters, inverse systems, minimum phase, maximum phase and mixed phase systems. Structures for discrete-time systems: Signal flow graph representation, basic structures for FIR and IIR systems (direct, parallel, cascade and polyphase forms), transposition theorem, ladder and lattice structures. Design of FIR and IIR filters: Design of FIR filters using windows, frequency sampling, Remez algorithm and least mean square error methods; Design of IIR filters using impulse invariance, bilinear transformation and frequency transformations. Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT): Computational problem, DFT relations, DFT properties, fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms (radix-2, decimation-in-time, decimation-in-frequency), Goertzel algorithm, linear convolution using DFT. Finite wordlength effects in digital filters: Fixed and floating point representation of numbers, quantization noise in signal representations, finite wordlength effects in coefficient representation, roundoff noise, SQNR computation and limit cycle. Introduction to multirate signal processing: Decimation, interpolation, polyphase decomposition; digital filter banks: Nyquist filters, two channel quadrature mirror filter bank and perfect reconstruction filter banks, subband coding.
1. A. V. Oppenheim and R. W. Shafer, Discrete-Time Signal Processing, Prentice Hall India, 2/e, 2004.
2. J. G. Proakis and D. G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing: Principles, Algorithms and Applications, 4/e, Pearson Education, 2007.
1. V.K. Ingle and J.G. Proakis, “Digital signal processing with MATLAB”, Cengage, 2008.
2. S. K. Mitra, Digital Signal Processing: A computer-Based Approach, 3/e, Tata McGraw Hill, 2006.
3. T. Bose, Digital Signal and Image Processing, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Singapore, 2004.
4. L. R. Rabiner and B. Gold, Theory and Application of Digital Signal Processing, Prentice Hall India, 2005.
5. A. Antoniou, Digital Filters: Analysis, Design and Applications, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2003.
6. T. J. Cavicchi, Digital Signal Processing, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Singapore, 2002.
7. E. C. Ifeachor and B. W. Jervis, Digital Signal Processing, Pearson Education, 2006.
EC - 321
Familiarisation of DSP development environments, basic experiments on signal addition, multiplication, vector operations; sampling and quantization; periodic waveform generation; pseudo-random sequence and white noise generation; correlation and convolution; design and implementation of finite impulse response (FIR) and infinite impulse response (IIR) filters. Real-time filtering of signals like speech/audio/biomedical, implementation of basic digital modulation schemes. The experiments are to be done on ADSP 21XX/TMS320C6XXX DSP Trainer Kit.
1. ADSP 21XX Family User's Manual (www.analog.com).
2. TMS320C6XXX CPU and Instruction Set Reference Guide, Texas Instruments, 2000 (www.ti.com).
3. V. K. Ingle and J. G. Proakis, Digital signal processing using MATLAB, Thompson Brooks/Cole, Singapore, 2007.
4. MATLAB and Signal Processing Toolbox User's Guide (www.mathworks.com).
EC - 330
Geometric representation of signal waveforms: Gram-Schmidt procedure for baseband and bandpass signal representation, constellations. Baseband and Bandpass transmission through AWGN channel: Baseband and Bandpass modulation schemes- MPAM, QAM, MPSK and MFSK; Coherent and noncoherent receiver structures, probability of error; Differential modulation schemes, receiver structure and error performance, Comparison of modulation schemes. Digital transmission through band-limited (BL) channel: ISI, Nyquist criterion for zero ISI; Design of BL signals with zero ISI; Design of BL signals for controlled ISI- partial response signals; Maximum-likelihood sequence detector (MLSD) for partial response signaling; Design of transmitter and receiver for known channel; Channel equalization. Synchronization: Frequency and phase synchronization; Symbol synchronization; Frame synchronization; Channel capacity and coding: channel models, channel capacity and bounds on communication; Channel coding for reliable communication. Multiple Access Communication: TDMA, FDMA, DS SS, FHSS, OFDM and their applications.
1. J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi: Communication Systems Engineering; Pearson, 2006.
2. S. Haykin, Communication Systems; 4/e, John Wiley & Sons, 2006.
1. B. Sklar, Digital Communication: Fundamentals and Applications; Pearson, 2/e, 2001.
2. J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications; McGraw-Hill, 4/e, 2001.
3. S. Benedetto and E. Biglieri, Principle of Digital Transmissions; Kluwer, 1999.
4. H. Taub and D. L. Schilling, Principles of Communication Systems; Tata McGraw-Hill, 2008.
5. A. B. Carlson, Communication Systems: An Introduction to Signals and Noise in Electrical Communication; McGraw-Hill, 3/e, 1986.
6. M. K. Simon, S. M. Hinedi and W. C. Lindsey, Digital Communication Techniques: Signal Design and Detection; PHI, 1994.
EC - 331
Amplitude modulation and demodulation (AM with carrier & DSBSC AM); frequency modulation and demodulation (using VCO & PLL); automatic gain control (AGC); pulse width modulation (PWM); pulse code modulation (PCM); pseudo-random (PN) sequence generation; binary phase shift keying (BPSK); binary frequency shift keying (BFSK).
1. W. Tomasi, Electronic Communications Systems – Fundamentals through advanced, 4/e, Pearson, 2003.
2. J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi: Communication Systems Engineering; Pearson, 2006.
3. H. Taub and D. L. Schilling: Principles of Communication Systems; Tata McGraw-Hill, 2008.
Communication Systems Engineering
EC - 332
Wired system: Brief description of telephone network, cable-TV, powerline communication; Working of telephone instrument, electrical characteristics of local loop, digital exchanges, data formats and signaling; Use of hybrids and echo cancellation in local loop, different types of modems; Wireless system: Frequency bands for Radio and TV broadcasting, propagation characteristics, point-to-point two-way communication system in HF, VHF and UHF band, transmitter and receiver for Radio and TV; Cellular communication systems-basic concepts; Microwave and line of sight communication: Modulation schemes, power level, antennas and repeaters; Satellite system: Low orbit and Geosynchronous systems; RF link and link budget calculations, satellite transponder, earth station, antennas, multiple access schemes, VSATs; Optical communication: Elements of an optical communication link- optical fiber, transmitter, receiver, repeater, optical amplifier.
1. W. Schweber, Electronic Communication Systems – A complete course, 4/e, PHI, 2004.
2. W. Tomasi, Electronic Communications Systems – Fundamentals through advanced, 4/e, Pearson education, 2003.
1. R. L. Freeman, Telecommunication System Engineering, 3/e, John Wiley & Sons, 2004.
2. J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, Communication Systems Engineering, 3/e, Pearson Education, 2003.
3. J. C. Bellamy, Digital Telephony, John Wiley, 2002.
4. R. R. Gulati, Monochrome and Colour Television, 2/e, New Age, 2005.
5. W. L. Pritchard, H. G. Suyderhoud and R. A. Nelson, Satellite Communication System Engineering, 2/e, Pearson Education, 2003.
EC - 333
Introduction: Basics of Data Communications for networking; Packet switching, Store-&-Forward operation; Layered network architecture, Overview of TCP/IP operation. Data Link Layer: Framing; error control, error detection, parity checks, Internet Checksum and Cyclic Redundancy Codes for error detection; Flow control and ARQ strategies; HDLC protocol. Media Access Control (MAC): MAC for wired and wireless Local Area Networks (LAN), Pure and Slotted ALOHA, CSMA, CSMA/CD, IEEE 802.3; ETHERNET, Fast ETHERNET, Gigabit ETHERNET; IEEE 802.11 WiFi MAC protocol, CSMA/CA; IEEE 802.16 WiMAX. Network Layer: Routing algorithms, Link State and Distance Vector routing; Internet routing, RIP, OSPF, BGP; IPv4 protocol, packet format, addressing, subnetting, CIDR, ARP, RARP, fragmentation and reassembly, ICMP; DHCP, NAT and Mobile IP; IPv6 summary. Fundamentals of Queueing Theory: Simple queueing models, M/M/- Queues, M/G/1/ Queues, queues with blocking, priority queues, vacation systems, discrete time queues. Transport Layer: UDP, segment structure and operation; TCP, segment structure and operation. Reliable stream service, congestion control and connection management. Selected Application Layer Protocols: Web and HTTP, electronic mail (SMTP), file transfer protocol (FTP), Domain Name Service (DNS). Network Security: Basics of cryptographic systems, symmetric and public key cryptography, certificates, authentication and use of trusted intermediaries; Security for Wi-Fi systems.
1. A. Leon-Garcia and I. Widjaja: Communication Networks; 2/e, McGraw Hill, 2004.
2. J.F. Kurose and K. W. Ross: Computer Networking, A Top-Down Approach, 4/e, Pearson/Addison Wesley, 2008.
1. D. Bertsekas and R. Gallagar, Data Networks, 2/e, PHI, 1992.
2. A. S. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks, 3/e, PHI, 1997.
3. W. Stallings, Data and Computer Communication, 7/e, Prentice-Hall, 2004.
EC - 340
Static fields: Coulomb’s and Gauss’ laws for electrostatics, Poisson’s and Laplace’s equations, Method of images and boundary value problems; Equation of continuity, Kirchoff’s voltage and current laws, Boundary conditions for current density; Biot-Savart’s law, Gauss’s and Ampere’s laws for magnetostatics, Magnetic vector potential; Magnetic dipoles, Magnetization and behavior of magnetic materials. Maxwell’s equations: Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction, Maxwell’s discovery, Maxwell’s equations and boundary conditions, Time-harmonic fields. Wave equation and plane waves: Helmholtz wave equation, Solution to wave equations and plane waves, Wave polarization, Poynting vector and power flow in em fields. Plane waves at a media interface: Plane wave in different media, Plane wave reflection from a media interface, Plane wave reflection from a complex media interface. Finite-difference time-domain method: 1-, 2- and 3-dimensional simulations, Absorbing boundary conditions and perfectly matched layer, Applications. Antennas & radiating systems: Radiation fundamentals, Antenna patterns and parameters, Hertz dipole, Wire antennas, Loop antennas, Antenna arrays. Method of moments: Introductory example from electrostatics, Basic steps of the method of moments, Linear operator equation, Applications.
1. M. N. O. Sadiku: Elements of Electromagnetics; Oxford University Press, 2000, 3/e.
2. D. K. Cheng: Field and Wave Electromagnetics; Pearson, 2001, 2/e.
1. A. Elsherbeni and V. Demir: The Finite-difference time-domain method for Electromagnetics with MATLAB Simulations; Scitech, 2009, 1/e.
2. K. E. Lonngren and S. V. Savov: Fundamentals Electromagnetics with MATLAB, PHI, 2005, 1/e.
3. C. A. Balanis: Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, John Wiley, 2005, 3/e.
4. R. K. Shevgaonkar: Electromagnetic Waves; McGraw Hill, 2006, 1/e.
5. R. F. Harrington: Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields, Wiley-IEEE, 2001, 2/e.
6. N. Ida, Engineering Electromagnetics, Springer, 2000, 1/e.
7. D. M. Sullivan: Electromagnetic Simulation using the FDTD Method, Wiley-IEEE, 2000, 1/e.
EC - 350
Modeling of physical systems: time-domain, frequency-domain and state-variable models; block diagram, signal flow graph and Mason’s gain formula; time and frequency response of first and second order systems; control system characteristics: stability, sensitivity, disturbance rejection and steady-state accuracy; stability analysis: Routh-Hurwitz test, relative stability, root locus, Bode and Nyquist plots; controller types: lag, lead, lag-lead, PID and variants of PID; controller design based on root-locus and frequency response plots; modern design techniques: canonical state-variable models, equivalence between frequency and time-domain representations, diagonalisation, controllability and observability, pole placement by state feedback, state feedback with integral control, observer and observer based state feedback control.
1. K. Ogata, Modern Control Engineering, Prentice Hall India, 2006.
2. G. F. Franklin, J. D. Powell and A. E. Emami-Naeini, Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, Prentice Hall, 2006.
1. M. Gopal, Control Systems, 3/e, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2008.
2. B. C. Kuo, Automatic Control Systems, 8/e, Wiley, 2002.
EC - 360
Introduction: Introduction to embedded systems with examples, embedded system design & modeling with unified markup language (UML). ARM processor fundamentals: Introduction to microprocessors and microcontrollers, 8-bit and 16- bit, von Neumann and Harvard architectures, CISC and RISC architectures, open source core (LEOX), ARM versions, ARM instruction set: programming model, assembly language, Thumb instruction set, memory organization, data operations and flow control. CPUs: Input/output mechanisms, isolated and memory mapped IO; interrupts and real time operations, ARM interrupts vectors, priorities and latency; supervisor modes, exceptions, traps, co-processors; cache memory and memory management. Embedded Platforms: CPUs: bus protocols, system bus configuration, USB and SPI buses, DMA, ARM bus; memory devices: memory device configuration, ROM, RAM, DRAM; I/O devices: timers, counters, ADC & DAC, keyboards, displays and touch screens. Processes and Operating Systems: multiple tasks and multiple processes; process abstraction; context switching: cooperative multitasking, preemptive multitasking, process and object-oriented design; operating systems and RTOS; scheduling polices; inter-process communication. Networks: distributed embedded architectures: networks abstractions, hardware and software architectures; networks for embedded systems: I2C bus, CAN bus; examples. Case studies: Inkjet printer, telephone exchange, etc.
1. W. Wolf, "Computers as components: Principles of embedded computing system design", 2/e, Elsevier, 2008.
2. A. N. Sloss, D. Symes, and C. Wright, "ARM system developer's guide: Designing and optimizing system software", Elsevier, 2008.
1. Product data sheet LPC 2141/42/44/46/48. NXP Semiconductors.
2. ARM7TDMI Technical Reference Manual, ARM Limited.
3. Jack Ganssle, "The art of designing embedded systems", 2/e, Elsevier, 2008.
4. Michael Barr, “Programming Embedded Systems in C and C++”, O'Really, 1999.
5. Kirk Zurell, “C Programming for Embedded Systems”, CMP Books, 2000.
Embedded Systems Laboratorys
EC - 361
Familiarization with ARM microcontroller development environment, assembler, compiler, simulator, debugger and JTAG; Experiments on simple I/O, registers and memory usage; Experiments on waveform generation, switch based I/O, polled and interrupt I/O, finite state machine for embedded systems (switch debounce filter, elevator, sequence detector etc). Experiments are to be performed on ARM microcontroller kit.
1. A. N. Sloss, D. Symes, and C. Wright, "ARM system developer's guide: Designing and optimizing system software", Elsevier, 2008.
2. Product data sheet LPC 2141/42/44/46/48. NXP Semiconductors.
3. Michael Barr, “Programming Embedded Systems in C and C++”, O'Really, 1999.
4. Kirk Zurell, “C Programming for Embedded Systems”, CMP Books, 2000.
EC - 370
Definition of instrumentation. Static characteristics of measuring devices. Error analysis, standards and calibration. Dynamic characteristics of instrumentation systems. Electromechanical indicating instruments: ac/dc current and voltage meters, ohmmeter; loading effect. Measurement of power and energy; Instrument transformers. Measurement of resistance, inductance, capacitance. ac/dc bridges. Measurement of non‑electrical quantities: transducers classification; measurement of displacement, strain, pressure, flow, temperature, force, level and humidity. Signal conditioning; Instrumentation amplifier, isolation amplifier, and other special purpose amplifiers. Electromagnetic compatibility; shielding and grounding. Signal recovery, data transmission and telemetry. Data acquisition and conversion. Modern electronic test equipment: oscilloscope, DMM, frequency counter, wave/ network/ harmonic distortion/ spectrum analyzers, logic probe and logic analyzer. Data acquisition system; PC based instrumentation. Programmable logic controller: ladder diagram. Computer controlled test systems, serial and parallel interfaces, Field buses. Smart sensors.
1. A. D. Helfrick and W. D. Cooper, Modern Electronic Instrumentation and Measurement Techniques, Pearson Education, 2008.
2. M. M. S. Anand, Electronic Instruments and Instrumentation Technology, PHI, 2006.
1. R. P. Areny and T. G. Webster, Sensors and Signal Conditioning, Wiley-Interscience, 2000.
2. E. O. Deobelin, Measurement Systems – Application and Design, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2004.
3. C. F. Coombs, Electronic Instruments Handbook, McGraw-Hill, 2000.
4. R. A. Witte, Electronic Test Instruments, Pearson Education, 2002.
5. B. M. Oliver and J. M. Cage, Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation, McGraw-Hill, 1975.
6. B. E. Jones, Instrumentation, measurement, and Feedback, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2000.
7. B. G. Liptak, Instrument Engineers’ Handbook: Process Measurement and Analysis, CRC, 2003.
Electronic Instrumentation Laboratory
EC - 371
Development of circuits for signal conditioning, signal recovery, telemetry; PC based instrumentation; Computer controlled test systems; Experiments using modern electronic test equipment, Programmable logic controller. Modeling of physical systems, open-loop and closed-loop control of systems, design of classical controllers, closed loop control of servo systems and regulatory systems, state-feedback based design of modern controllers.
1. C. D. Johnson, Process Control Instrumentation Technology, Prentice Hall India, 2006.
2. R. P. Areny and T. G. Webster, Sensor and Signal Conditioning, Wiley-Interscience, 2000.
3. C. F. Coombs, Electronic Instruments Handbook, McGraw-Hill, 2000.
4. K. Ogata, Modern Control Engineering, Prentice Hall India, 2006.
5. G. F. Franklin, J. D. Powell and A. E. Emami-Naeini, Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems; Prentice Hall, 2006.
Information Theory and Coding
EC - 430
Information Theory: Entropy and mutual information for discrete ensembles; Asymptotic equipartition property; Markov chains; Shannon's noiseless coding theorem; Encoding of discrete sources. Discrete memoryless channels; Shannon's noisy coding theorem and converse for discrete channels; Calculation of channel capacity and bounds for discrete channels; Deferential entropy; Calculation of channel capacity for Gaussian channels; Rate distortion function. Coding Theory: Linear Codes, distance bounds, generator and parity check matrices, error-syndrome table; a brief overview of rings and ideals; Cyclic codes, generator and parity check polynomials, Finite fields, applications of finite fields to cyclic codes; BCH codes and Reed-Soloman Codes; An overview of convolutional codes. Maximum likelihood decoding; Introduction to iterative codes and its sub-optimal decoding algorithms.
1. T. M. Cover and J. A. Thomas, "Elements of Information Theory", John Wiley, 1991.
2. R. E. Blahut, "Algebraic Codes for Data Transmission", Cambridge University Press, 2003.
1. R. W. Yeung, "A First Course in Information Theory", Kluwer Academic Publisher, 2002.
2. D. J. Mackay, "Information Theory, Inference and Learning Algorithms”, Cambridge University Press, 2003.
3. R. B. Ash, "Information Theory", Dover Publisher, 1990.
4. R.G. Gallager, "Information Theory and Reliable Communication", John Wiley, 1976.
5. F. J. MacWilliams and N. J. A. Sloane, "The Theory of Error-Correcting Codes," North Holland, 1977.
6. T. Richardson and R. Urbanke, “Modern Coding Theory,” Cambridge University Press, 2008.
EC - 441
Transmission lines and waveguides: Distributed elements concept, Telegrapher’s equations, Lossless and lossy lines, Line impedance and junction, Smith chart, TEM, TE and TM Waves, Coaxial cable, Rectangular and circular waveguides. Narrowband and broadband impedance matching: L-section impedance matching, single and double stub matching, Quarter wave transformer, Theory of small reflections, Multi section matching transformer, Tapered lines. Microwave networks: N-port microwave networks, Impedance, admittance, transmission and scattering matrix representations, Reciprocal and lossless networks, Network matrices transformations, Equivalent circuit extraction. Microwave passive circuits: RLC, microstrip and waveguide cavity resonators; Periodic structures and microwave filters; Hybrid junctions, directional couplers and power dividers; Ferrite devices and circulators. Microwave integrated circuits: Planar transmission lines, characteristics of microwave integrated circuits; design of single stage amplifier and oscillator using transistor; PIN diode based control circuits. Microwave tubes: Limitations of conventional tubes in the microwave frequency ranges, Klystron amplifier, Reflex klystron oscillator, Magnetrons, Traveling wave tubes. Microwave solid-state devices: Characteristics of microwave bipolar transistors and FET, Transferred electron devices, avalanche diode oscillators. Printed microstrip antennas: Basic characteristics, types and feeding methods of microstrip antennas, analysis of rectangular microstrip antennas using simplified models.
1. R. E. Collin, Foundations for Microwave Engineering; 2/e, Wiley-IEEE Press, 2000.
2. A. Das and S. K. Das, Microwave Engineering; 1/e, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2005.
1. D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering; 3/e, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2004.
2. G. Kumar and K. P. Ray, Broadband Microstrip Antennas; 1/e, Artech House, 2002.
3. R. C. Booton, Computational methods for Electromagnetics and Microwaves; 1/e, Wiley, 1992.
4. G. Gonzalez, Microwave Transistor Amplifiers: Analysis and Design; 2/e, Prentice Hall of India, 2007.
5. S. M. Liao, Microwave devices and Circuits;3/e, Prentice Hall of India, 2004.
6. P. A. Rizzi, Microwave Engineering Passive Circuits; 1/e, Pearson, 1998.
Microwave Engineering Laboratory
EE - 442
Frequency and wavelength measurements; determination of standing wave ratio and reflection coefficient; study of characteristics of Klystron tube and Gunn diodes; simulation and measurements of antenna parameters.
1. D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, 3/e, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2004.
2. R. E. Collin, Foundations for Microwave Engineering, 2/e, Wiley-IEEE Press, 2000.
3. A. Das and S. K. Das, Microwave Engineering, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2005.