Photocatalysis and nanoparticles:
1. Bio-mediated route of metal doping: A breakthrough
2. Metal nanoparticles synthesis and antimicrobial functionalities
1. Electrocatalytic H2O2 formation and sensing
2. Electrocatalytic CO2 conversion to value chemicals
Physiochemical and biochemical processes
1. Heavy metal remediation using functionalized adsorbent and bio-resin
2. Spirulina platensis: A potential scavenger of chromium from wastewater

Various micro-algal species have proven potential for removal of heavy metals. However, the ​challenges arise when Cl- concentration in the media is high and also pH is beyond the neutral regime. Spirulina platensis, a blue-green microalga, enriched in protein content, grow in high saline and alkaline condition. The mechanisms of both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) removal using Spirulina sp. are reconnoitered. The concentration of functional groups is estimated in the order of phosphatic>>carboxyl >amine. Cr(III) uptake modeling shows dual sites coverage of Cr(III) on Spirulina biomass surface with predominant occupancy to phosphatic sites. The amine group however, according to metal binding model is less significant in Cr(III) binding. The kinetic model of Cr(VI) reduction into Cr(III) is developed(Eq. 1)  in terms of protonated acidic groups of Spirulina biomass and Cr(VI) concentrations. Cl- present in chrome tanning effluent (CTE) is a serious threat for the environmental pollution for MANNY YEARS. This work also explores the potential use of Cl- present in CTE for the cultivation and growth of Spirulina (Figure 1) and, a kinetic model by incorporating the rate of photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, and respiration well predicted Spirulina growth in Zarrouk media and CTE.  

Figure 1 (a) Pictorial view of Spirulina growth in CTE at different Cl- concentration. (b): Influence of residual Cr(III) concentration on cell growth for a period of one month.

Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs)
1. Impact of iron chelation on PhACs decomposition in AOPs