Photocatalysis and nanoparticles:
1. Bio-mediated route of metal doping: A breakthrough
2. Metal nanoparticles synthesis and antimicrobial functionalities
1. Electrocatalytic H2O2 formation and sensing
2. Electrocatalytic CO2 conversion to value chemicals
Physiochemical and biochemical processes
1. Heavy metal remediation using functionalized adsorbent and bio-resin

Removal of heavy metals from industrial wastes by conventional methods could be expensive as well source for generation of secondary wastes such as highly toxic sludge.  Green approaches such as utilization of waste biomass for the development of low-cost adsorbent have proved its potential over the years for heavy metal remediation.
In this study, we have synthesized a bio-resin (Figure 1) and a dual site adsorbent (Figure 2) from arecanut husk, a waste biomass, for battery wastewater remediation. The preparation of cation exchanger bio-resin involved EDTAD modification of mercerized arecanut husk (EMH) in anhydrous DMF. Whereas the dual site adsorbent was functionalized using simple sulphuric acid treatment to obtain functionalized fibrous adsorbent (FFA). Apart from this, electro-kinetic migration of heavy metals from secondary waste i.e. toxic sludge was attempted to optimize experimental parameters. The synthesized EMH and FFA were characterized using different analytical and spectroscopic techniques to explore possible metal uptake potential. A proton adsorption model was developed for identification and estimation of functional groups on the EMH and FFA. EMH and FFA were applied for heavy metal removal from synthetic wastewater before being used for remediation of battery wastewater. The bio-resin showed a metal uptake capacity of 18.87 mg/g, whereas FFA was very efficient in Pb(II) removal with metal uptake capacity of 194 mg/g, along with other heavy metals present. The mechanism of metal removal was found to be ion exchange for both EMH as well as FFA and equilibrium metal binding was studied with developed model. The model exhibited an excellent great agreement with the experimental results and derived the Pb(II) binding constants of 1.73×103 and 5.2×106 L/mol for EMH and FFA, respectively. The model also predicted the contribution of each group in metal removal and found that carboxylic groups were responsible for Pb(II) removal even with a lesser concentration.
The synthesized EMH and/or FFA could be applied for remediation of heavy metallic industrial wastewaters at low cost, as it can be repetitively used and could be regenerated after exhaustion.

Figure 1. Synthesis and application of bio-resin for heavy metal remediation of battery wastewater.
Figure 2. Synthesis of functionalized fibrous adsorbent by simple acid treatment.
2. Spirulina platensis: A potential scavenger of chromium from wastewater
Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs)
1. Impact of iron chelation on PhACs decomposition in AOPs